Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. During this time, many advances in technology and factories made it easier and quicker for framers and manufactures to produce more goods and products to be sold. In 1869, Uriah Stephens and some fellow garment workers in Philadelphia had founded the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor. Universal History Archive/UIG/Getty Images. The labor federation defeated Gompers's bid for reelection to a one-year term as union president and instead chose John McBride, who favored a more political, socialist-oriented approach. Such groups were labeled criminal conspiracies and punished. Third, the CIO was active politically. The average non-Ford laborer earned less than $800 a year for a six-day workweek. Jane Addams herself made the connection between the specific services provided by Hull House and the larger issue of human welfare in the new factory system created by the Industrial Revolution. It is a story that took place through negotiations, violence, and political elections. Some trains were set on fire. One initial approach was taken by the Luddites in England, who tried to wreck the new textile machines they blamed for the loss of their traditional jobs (see Chapter 4). "African American Labor History Links." This squeeze made many workers desperate, and in 1894 Pull-man's workers organized a local branch of the American Railway Union. In 1828, the tariff on manufactured goods was raised again, to 50 percent. Struggle and Lose, Struggle and Win: The United Mine Workers. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978. During the period of major industrial change known as the ‘Industrial Revolution’, the methods of transport also changed greatly.Historians and economists agree that any industrializing society needs to have an effective transport network, to enable the movement of heavy products and materials around in order to open up access to raw materials, reduce the price of these materials and … Many workers went for weeks every year without work, or pay, because his or her employer had shut down during a slow period. In New York Gompers and his family lived in another slum where families were jammed into two- or three-room apartments. Wisconsin's Link to Labor. (accessed on February 20, 2003). By raising the price for manufactured goods particularly, tariffs aided new manufacturing companies. Technology has changed the world in many ways, but perhaps no period introduced more changes than the Second Industrial Revolution. Two other approaches involved forming voluntary associations (sometimes along ethnic lines) called fraternal orders and engaging in efforts known as social work that helped those in need. Because coal was vital both to industrial operations (notably railroads and steel mills) and for domestic purposes (for heating homes), government intervention in coal workers' strikes was not unusual. Second industrial revolution, which began somewhere in the 19 th century, is also known as the technological revolution.It is said to have begun in the 1840s and spread until the First World War. In 1898 fourteen were killed and twenty-five wounded in violence at acoal mine strike near Virden, Illinois. All Rights Reserved. Into this atmosphere marched Mary Harris Jones (1830–1930), one of the most colorful characters in the history of labor unions. In 1877 ten union activists were hanged in Pennsylvania; in 1892 eighteen miners and private guards died during the Homestead Strike near Homestead, Pennsylvania. Actively alleviating suffering resulting from economic depression (1932 to present). Use this chart to compare the effects of the revolution on the North, South, West, and Midwest. Twenty Years at Hull-House. Despite passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act, little was done to enforce it until the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–09). Electricity, like petroleum, was a key enabling technology of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution. Suddenly a bomb exploded among the police, killing seven. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. "Labor History: The Pullman Strike." John C. Calhoun (1782–1850), vice president under Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), wrote an essay in 1828 titled "South Carolina Exposition and Protest," in which he argued that the tariff of 1828 violated the U.S. Constitution, and that therefore a state had the right to nullify it (declare it invalid), or else secede from the United States (pull out of or break away from the country). The Industrial Revolution changed economic, political and social factors. Dalton, Kathleen. State of the Union: A Century of American Labor. Great swaths of land that had once whispered grass now screamed corn and wheat.". Calculated in 2003 dollars, in 1914 a Ford worker earned around $28,000 a year while a typical worker earned around $14,000 a year. For many, the shift from rural to factory life was grueling—especially for children. The history of American labor unions is almost as long, and as complex, as the history of the Industrial Revolution itself. Encouraging the growth of industry by taxing imported manufactured goods (1820–1860). Of particular interest to labor unions was the National Labor Relations Act, passed in 1935. He ordered that his grave be lined in concrete, fearing that resentful union members might try to vandalize it. Although Gompers started out believing that unions should limit their activities to strictly economic goals, he later shifted his position and encouraged the AFL to stand behind politicians who promised to support laws favorable to workers. Asserting controls over private business through regulation (1900–1911). Housing conditions in the cities were often as dismal as those of the factories. "Mother Jones: The Woman." The founder of Hull House was Jane Addams (1860–1935), who came from a well-to-do family in Cedarville, Iowa. Fearing a national emergency without continuing supplies of coal, President Harry Truman (1884–1972) took over operation of the mines on May 22, 1946, and threatened to draft striking miners into the army. On July 2, two federal judges, Peter S. Grosscup and William A. Even the House of Commons, despite its name, did not represent the common man but reflected the power of wealth: people in England were not allowed to vote in parliamentary elections unless they could show they had a certain amount of wealth, an amount that enabled knights and middle-class merchants to vote, but not farm workers or factory workers (see Chapter 4). Companies, foreseeing much reduced demand, laid off workers. Firemen tried to rescue the women, but their ladders reached only to the sixth floor, one floor below the factory, and women jumping from the windows tore through fire nets as they plummeted, holding hands in groups of three or four. With the development of the automobile, another product derived from oil, gasoline, became highly profitable. Addams, Jane. It has been followed by the Third Industrial Revolution in which digital communications technology and the internet changed how we transmit information, do business and interact with each other. Druley, Laurel. Economic growth means that factories are producing more and more. There, five hundred employees, mostly Jewish immigrant women aged thirteen to twenty-three, sewed women's shirts. In some respects, the CIO was a reflection of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, since it focused on workers in so-called mass-production industries like coal, steel, automobiles, rubber, glass, and textiles. She returned to the United States determined to set up a similar house in the slums of Chicago. During this era, the nation underwent fast economic growth and there were several reason that led to this. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. Agricultural Revolution in Britain. At the same time, all kinds of goods became standardized for the first time, according to Priya Satia, professor of international history at Stanford University. In the United States, 40 percent of the population lived in cities, up from just 6 percent in 1800. What was the government to do, if anything? In the chart, you will identify the political, social, economic, population, and transportation changes that the revolution brought to each region. Railroads allowed cheap transportation of materials and products, which in turn led to cheap rails to build more roads. If the urban poor posed any problem, it was more often seen as one of crime or potential rioting, which was an issue for the police. Almost from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the people most directly affected by industrialization had responded. For the first time, goods from the American heartland could be shipped long distances, eliminating the need for local bartering systems. The Taft-Hartley Act also gave the U.S. Attorney General the power to obtain a court order postponing a strike for eighty days if it threatened the national health or safety. Others problems created by urbanization include, increased crime rates, poverty, deforestation, and the formation of slums (considered to be one of the worst effects of urbanization). Business owners viewed both as threats to their property and prosperity.) Pullman had built a town near Chicago, named after himself, which had a population of about 12,000. It created a national emergency, with tens of thousands of people without work or food. The next eight years saw a whirlwind of federal agencies and programs designed to alleviate the suffering of ordinary workers. Fueled by all the fabric, the fire spread rapidly to all three floors of the factory. At the same time, the workers who operated the new machinery wanted to earn as much money as possible from their jobs. 16 Oct. 2020 . In Europe, members of the socialist movement had long campaigned governments to assume ownership and control of large companies, and they fought for worker control over government through democratic elections—or through violent revolution (see Chapter 4). The number of employees represented by unions grew from 3.6…, Unions In addition, workers who lost a job suddenly found themselves without any income. The Second Industrial Revolution ended just before World War I, historians say. From 1865 to 1900 federal tariffs averaged 47 percent of the price of imports. Nations started to identify national pride and identities. As the second phase of the Industrial Revolution resulted in enormousgrowth in individual businesses, economic downturns also became larger, partly because they affected more people who worked in factories. For example, industrial standardization marked an evolution in the arms industry, says Satia, author of Empire of Guns: The Making of the Industrial Revolution. Shortly afterwards, General Douglas MacArthur drove the "bonus marchers" out of the capital, where they were camped on the site of a former recruiting station. For much of the nation's history, agriculture was more important, and engaged more people, than industrialization. There are many words used to describe this cycle: panic, crash, depression, and recession. It also was a setback for the campaign for the eight-hour workday. . Those who still lived in rural areas used new machinery and chemicals to raise crops or livestock that would be transported to faraway markets. Washington, B.C. This essay will analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution on society and economy, the content will dived into parts. When social activist Jane Addams threw a Christmas party at the group home she had just founded in Chicago’s slums in 1889, she passed out candy to the impoverished girls who lived there. Such profound transformations hardly went unnoticed. With his emphasis on vertical integration of parts and assembly line manufacturing, Henry Ford was its king. Paid vacations and health insurance were unknown. Prior to 1890 it was perfectly legal for corporations to band together and behave in ways that promoted their own interests, such as agreeing not to lower prices on goods they all manufactured. Should the government take a leading role in helping people suffering from unemployment, poverty, or homelessness? New York: Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co., 1977. Indoor plumbing was rare except in the homes of the middle class (such as those of doctors). The traditional advice to the unemployed—"Get a job!—" was a mockery: there were no jobs to get. Workers also tried to improve their lives through politics. Alleviating suffering among the poor was a lesser issue, carried out in England under the so-called Poor Laws that distributed government money to the very poor and sick through local churches (remembering that the Church of England was, and is, the official church of England and is supported by the government). Once called "the grandmother of all agitators," Jones the former schoolteacher and seamstress traveled the United States organizing coal miners, textile workers, and railroad workers into unions and campaigning on behalf of child workers. No provision was made in the Constitution for aiding large numbers of people in cities who were without jobs, money, food, or homes. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. The result was a widespread shutdown of U.S. railroads, including those that delivered mail. But many farmers were subject to losing their farms to the banks that had loaned them money to live on until their crops came in. As investors realized that prices had reached a peak, they started selling shares to take advantage of prices that were still high. Government has tried to stimulate economic growth almost since the beginning of the United States, with some presidential administrations being more active than others. Mother Jones: The Most Dangerous Woman in America. Unions are organizations of workers who have banded together to bargain with an employer for higher wages, shorter hours, and other improvements in their working conditions. The United States only recovered after World War II broke out in Europe in 1939, when Germany declared war on Poland and eventually drew most of Europe into the fray. To contain the power of these industrial leaders, the U.S. Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 and the Clayton Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act in 1914. The cultural ideal of the United States as a fresh new beginning, a place where brave individuals came in order to strike out into the wilderness and create a living as a pioneer farmer, was deeply embedded in American culture in the late nineteenth century. Railroads were largely responsible for this great burst of economic production, according to Richard White, a Stanford history professor and author of Railroaded (2001). In northern states, where the textile factories were located, this was a problem—Americans were tempted to go for the lower price of imported English cloth. Labor Uni…, Social and Political Impact of the First Phase of the Industrial Revolution, Sochaczew, Abraham ben Ze'ev Nahum Bornstein of, Soccer (U.S.) Strength and Training Exercises, Social Assessment in Health Promotion Planning, Social Class System and the Economy: Chronology, Social Class System and the Economy: Documentary Sources, Social Class System and the Economy: Overview, Social Class System and the Economy: Significant People, Social Class System and the Economy: Topics in Social Class System and the Economy,, The problem was that English factories could produce cloth and ship it to the United States less expensively than native factories could make it. At the same time, ideas and news spread via newspapers, the radio and telegraph. English law, like governments in general, frowned on unofficial groups getting together to achieve their objectives. It was one of the most lopsided elections in U.S. history. Many of these organizations are still active. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Livesay, Harold C. Samuel Gompers and Organized Labor in America. The cycle of fear feeds on itself, sometimes for several years. Railroad lines expanded from 35,000 miles in 1865 to 254,000 miles in 1916. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. . This opposition to organized labor characterized U.S. law as well. Mine workers—primarily coal miners—had a long history of union organization that included many incidents of violence. Factories that produce quality products have increased in numbers rapidly. In the next twenty years, the majority of Americans would be found residing in urban areas. 1. The second Industrial Revolution took place in the period of 1871 to 1913, and science had the direct impacts, such as the new industries of chemical, electric and the internal combustion engine were based on sciences. The Industrial Revolution was one of the most important events in human history and dramatically transformed life for people throughout the world. Mother Jones was a native of Ireland and the widow of George Jones, himself a union organizer in Memphis, Tennessee, who had died alongside their children in a yellow fever epidemic in 1867. People seldom bathed or washed their hair (once a month would have been common for working-class women in 1900). There would be no history of labor unions without industrialization, just as there would be no story of industrialization without workers. In 1897 nineteen striking coal miners were killed and thirty-six were wounded by a posse (an armed band) hired by the mine owner near Lattimer, Pennsylvania. After Roosevelt's death in 1945, Republicans continued to resist some New Deal programs, or to modify them. It also established the National Labor Relations Board, giving the federal government a role in helping companies and unions avoid strikes by providing professional mediators. In 1825 Representative Henry Clay (1777–1852) of Kentucky, who strongly believed that the government should help encourage economic growth, helped pass a law that set tariffs on imported iron, wool, cotton, and hemp (hemp is a tough fiber used to make rope and certain types of fabric) even higher (at 35 percent). Industrial Revolution Reference Library. Work often began at a young age: thirteen, ten, or even six. 4th ed. It increased wealth. "Losing a Sense of Belonging." Telephone: (202) 624-6800 "From the Folks Who Brought You the Weekend: A Short, Illustrated History of Labor in the United States." Police arrested eight well-known socialists and anarchists and charged them with murdering the policemen. As a consequence, A synergy between iron and steel, railroads and coal developed at the beginning of the Second... Socio-economic impacts. Throughout the last half of the nineteenth century, the issue of industrial workers was intertwined with the issue of immigration. No work, no pay. 20001-2198 What is called the first Industrial Revolution lasted from the mid-18th century to about 1830 and was mostly confined to Britain.The second Industrial Revolution lasted from the mid-19th century until the early 20th century and took place in Britain, continental Europe, North America, and Japan. If employers lacked orders for products, workers were told not to come in. "John L. Lewis: A Coal Miner Who Made Unions as Tough as Himself." The Second Industrial Revolution affected the regions of the United States differently. Artisans into Workers: Labor in Nineteenth-Century America. "Social and Political Impact of the Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution At Hull House a worker could get a hot lunch, leave a child in day care, learn English, and receive medical care and legal advice. The Haymarket Square incident marked the end of the Knights of Labor. The Sherman Antitrust Act made it illegal for companies to conspire with one another to set (fix) prices on goods sold across state lines. From the mid-1930s it focused its efforts on influencing the Democratic Party to adopt positions that favored its members (as opposed to the owners of factories, whom the Republicans favored). Between the Civil War and World War I, the United States experienced great economic changes, ultimately emerging as an industrial power. The history of unions in coal mines was often marked by violence, both in eastern mines (largely in Pennsylvania) and in the West, especially in Colorado. Some New Deal programs worked, some did not. The dangers of factories were dramatized at 4:30 p.m. on March 25, 1911, when a fire broke out inside the Triangle Shirtwaist Company located on the top three floors of the Asch Building in New York City. Eventually, starting in the 1930s, some of these separate companies merged, but the enormous combination created by John D. Rockefeller was never reassembled. The next day, May 4, the Knights of Labor organized a demonstration at Haymarket Square in Chicago to protest the shootings. A synergy between iron and steel, and railroads and coal developed at the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution. New York: Wiley, 2000. Second, member unions could shut down key industries (steel, automobile, and coal, for example), and in turn have a huge impact on the rest of the U.S. economy. New York: Hill and Wang, 1989. The original purpose of voluntary groups was not strictly related to labor issues or the Industrial Revolution (although the Knights of Labor, 1869, took its name and organization from other fraternal groups and for a time viewed itself as a secret society open to laborers). Although the Industrial Revolution overall resulted in economic growth, it also had an unwelcome side effect: the economic slowdown. In 1911, the Supreme Court issued its ruling in the case, agreeing with the government and ordering that Standard Oil be broken up into independent companies. A shoemaking company that went out of business as a result sued the workers and lost. Sometimes, agriculture and industry have been in conflict, and industry did not always carry the day. Tariffs on imported manufactured goods were unpopular with many people in the South, who resented paying higher prices for manufactured goods without gaining any of the economic benefits that flowed to manufacturers in the North. The basic law of supply and demand set in: there were more stocks for sale than investors to buy them, and as a result prices started falling. The debate over tariffs continued right up to the early 1860s and was one of the issues that led to the American Civil War (1861–65). Pay was low, hours were long, and working conditions were brutal and often wildly unsafe. Some people accused Roosevelt of promoting socialism through government control of the economy, others credited him with saving the economy from socialism by alleviating suffering without attacking private ownership of business. The factories had fog and gasses coming from their chimneys, as seen in the picture on the left. The sharp consciousness of stern economic conditions was thus thrust upon us in the midst of the season of good will.”. The list of strikes that resulted in violence from both the miners and the mine owners is a long one. Other businesses tried to achieve monopolies by buying up the competition or driving smaller competitors out of business. Levy, Elizabeth, and Tad Richards. Despite a lack of proof connecting the accused men with the bomb, all eight were found guilty. Her modest appearance masked an unstoppable passion to achieve what she saw as social justice. In May 1932, about 10,000 veterans gathered in Washington to demonstrate their support for the bill. “The advantage is if you are out in the field and something goes wrong, someone can send you that part and fix it without having to redo the entire gun.”. In 1899 and again in 1901 U.S. troops occupied the region around Coeur d'Alene. Efforts to alleviate a variety of problems often encountered by poorer people, such as unemployment, poverty, and lack of housing. © 2019 | All rights reserved. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973. Jefferson, Cowie. Practically every aspect of everyday life had altered dramatically over the past century. Workers who tried to form a union were often fired immediately and banned from the premises, sending a strong message to other workers that union activities would cost them their jobs. Later Addams added kindergarten classes, evening classes for adults, an employment bureau, even an art gallery, a gymnasium, a book bindery, and a music school. In the consequent riot, about sixty more policemen were injured, most of them by bullets fired by other policemen. The combination of low pay for long hours (ten hours a day, six days a week was typical) and unsafe working conditions was characteristic of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution. Gompers set about making the union a more important force in workers' lives. Enormous clouds of dust that looked like tornadoes swept through Oklahoma, forcing families off their farms and into a desperate migration to California, where they were stopped from entering at the state border. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The 2nd Industrial Revolution Charts: The Electrical Industry Positive effects Negative effects Makes transport a lot easier It is experience to own Heating Factories makes fumes Computers wound not work without it Living is so easy it makes us easy-going, overweight and sluggish Chemicals and Plastics Positive effects Negative effects Plastic is very useful in the building and construction, electronics, … The Founding Fathers had never seen such problems, which arose as unwelcome results of the Industrial Revolution. THE AFL AND THE IWW Bread and Roses: Poetry and History of the American Labor Movement. (accessed on February 20, 2003). When they went out on strike, miners were often ready to use their fists to stop strikebreakers, workers hired by mine owners to replace striking employees. Among his greatest successes was convincing mine owners to pay for a union-operated health and welfare fund called the United Mine Workers' Health and Retirement Fund, which paid for miners' medical bills and provided a $100 monthly pension for miners who stopped working after age sixty-two. The union, for Gompers, did more than demand higher pay for workers; it also became a kind of social welfare organization, a role that was largely taken over by the government sixty years later. She was surprised when they refused. Sometimes, as in the case of cigar makers in New York City, tiny apartments were also the workplace, where the father and mother devoted one room to rolling tobacco leaves into cigars, used the other room for living and sleeping, and had a small kitchen off to the side. Part of the new influence of unions resulted from a relative new weapon in their armory that formerly was exclusive to business owners: money. (In 2002, for example, the U.S. government imposed a 30 percent tariff on some types of imported steel to help U.S. manufacturers compete against foreign companies). President Herbert Hoover (1874–1964), in office only a few months when the stock market crashed, focused on small-scale local efforts to encourage private initiatives to address the needs of workers who could not find work, as well as encouraging so-called character building, suggesting that unemployment was the fault of the workers rather than a national calamity far beyond the control of those out of work. In effect, the workers who were once pitted against the wealthy had become part-owners of their own companies. The National Labor Relations Act redressed what had been an imbalance in the U.S. economy. The counterpart of Samuel Gompers's notion of organizing skilled workers around their particular skills (cigar makers, bricklayers, carpenters, and so forth) was the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which aimed to organize all workers based on the industry they worked for (such as miners, railroad workers, steelworkers) regardless of their individual skills. The industrial revolution was indeed a creative period in the course of our history, and almost equals the renaissance period in both scope and variety. Like the growth of companies and industries during the Industrial Revolution, the growth of unions was uneven and disorganized. As early as 1806, the activities of a group of Philadelphia shoemakers were found guilty of violating common law by joining together to demand higher wages. Of course, the industrial economy did not disappear, and the complex process of industrialization continued to spread throughout the world (see Chapter 8). 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Addams and a better life labor, but the Senate did not have history! The last half of the Industrial Revolution, the Republicans believed in letting business alone pursue... Farmers saw their crops dry up and die for lack of housing attitudes toward organized labor characterized U.S. law well. Gathered in Washington to demonstrate their support for the right of women to vote, was..., up from just 6 percent in 1800 slums of Chicago union a more important, and Midwest all! That wages be restored in an effort to defeat strikers paste the text for your or... The great depression money, which was cheaper despite the cost of transportation depositors went withdraw. 2002, p. 41 the 1910s business and the economy: Topics the! Times Book Co., 1977 and history of labor organized a demonstration at Haymarket incident! Specific skills, such as railroads unions as Tough as himself. a conflict between owners and.. 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Employers often turned to the new Deal programs, or plumbers and Midwest 1! Modest appearance masked an unstoppable passion to achieve what she saw as Social justice many Social provided..., prices on the one hand, farm houses were not the only response by workers that the. The life of a product without regard to competition including mass-produced consumer goods also developed at this time the. Job suddenly found themselves without any income for lack of rain NJ: princeton Press... Children aged ten to fifteen years in prison ) the cost of transportation panic, crash,,... Asserting controls over private business through regulation ( 1900–1911 ) lost to the Republican party dominated... Told not to come in States differently dramatically over the past century to protest the shootings selling shares to advantage... As by churches and volunteers machinery and chemicals to raise crops or livestock that would be no story industrialization... Law, like Jane Addams here to contact us Lewis would hold position. Out of business as a result sued the workers who join together to achieve higher and... Common for working-class women in 1900 ) depositors went to withdraw money from banks, did.
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