[80] Public health officials, researchers, and programs can gain a more comprehensive picture of the barriers they face, and the efficacy of current approaches to family planning, by tracking specific, standardized family planning and reproductive health indicators. We'll never sell or share your email address. Globalization: The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. Women in developed countries... 2/3 income of men longer life expectancy ... AP Human Geography Chapter 10 - Development. Start studying AP Human Geography Unit 2. The younger the women is when she gives birth, the more at risk her and her baby is for complications and possibly mortality.[16]. This definition of the term is also echoed in the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women,[70] or the so-called Beijing Declaration of 1995. Other reasons can be regional such as complications related to diseases such as malaria and AIDS during pregnancy. An increase in population by almost 30 million people. "Legislation of abortion on request is necessary but an insufficient step towards improving women's health. “Maternal Health Interventions in Resource Limited Countries: a Systematic Review of Packages, Impacts and Factors for Change.” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. Includes empowerment, labor, and reproductive health. The GII sheds new light on the position of women in 162 countries; it yields insights in gender gaps in major areas of human … “Pro-life” emphasizes the right of the embryo or fetus to gestate to term and be born. It is hard to get an abortion due to legal and policy barriers, social and cultural barriers (gender discrimination, poverty, religious restrictions, lack of support), health system barriers (lack of facilities or trained personnel). poorer nations funding their medical services through taxes places a greater financial burden on factor, such as unemployment or the lack of freedom of speech, that makes people want to leave their country and move to another one, factor such as freedom or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country, a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. the scientific study of population characteristics, the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanate human settlement, Total number of people divided by the landmass, number of people per unit of area arable land: land suitable agricultre. This definition is taken and modified from the WHO definition of health. [51], Accesses to abortion is not only a question of legality, but also an issue of overcoming de facto barriers, such as conscientious objections from medical stuff, high prices, lack of knowledge about the law, lack of access to medical care (especially in rural areas). Definition: Demographic transition model (From first stage to Second stage) ... and inequality •Ignores basic social and reproductive rights of women. In addition, if the woman and/or the man has a genetic disease, there is risk of these being passed on to the children. As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population. Effective . a very small, short-term loan at low interest, especially to a start-up company or self-employed person. Some countries have seen a slight decline in FGM rates, while others show little to no change. Created. [29] The Catholic Church bases its argument against birth control pills on the basis that birth control pills undermine the natural law of God. [53] The right to manage one's own body is a matter of health, safety, and respect. [53] This Act allowed doctors to perform abortions when the pregnancy risked the physical or mental health of the pregnant person. a) Provisions that allow, tolerate or condone forms of gender based violence against women, including [...] legislation that criminalises abortion". 40. Geography. the correlation between stability and openess, the curve that difines how rate at which technology is advancing, number of organisms in a population that an environment can maintain, Demographers began to include men in reproductive research after this conference. Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs. All the following have been considered new industrial countries EXCEPT [29], Support for contraception is based on views such as reproductive rights, women's rights, and the necessity to prevent child abandonment and child poverty. Level. According to the WHO, "All women need access to antenatal care in pregnancy, skilled care during childbirth, and care and support in the weeks after childbirth". Total Cards. 1, 2011, doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-30. of different maternal health interventions across the globe stagger variously and are vastly Responsibility and accountability on the part of mental health sectors are strongly [20] Some [62], FGM can have severe negative psychological effects on women, both during and after the procedure. For the journal, see, Please note: What is considered a human right is in some cases controversial; not all the topics listed are universally accepted as human rights, International Conference on Population and Development, 1994. Individuals do face inequalities in reproductive health services. the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population. "Although States parties may adopt measures designed to regulate voluntary terminations of pregnancy, such measures must not result in violation of the right to life of a pregnant woman or girl, or her other rights under the Covenant. [37], Young African American women are at a higher risk for STI's, including HIV. The Program of Action endorses a new strategy which emphasizes the numerous linkages between population and development and focuses on meeting the needs of individual women and men rather than on achieving demographic targets. - Microloans/-finance/-credit: NGOs/private sector/TNCs offer small loans to women, decreases gender inequality (increase in reproductive health, education, food/nutrition, labor force participation, etc.) Rubenstein p … The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture. [30] The Catholic Church also argues against birth control on the basis of family size, with Cardinal Mercier of Belgium arguing,  "...the duties of conscience are above worldly considerations, and besides, it is the large families who are the best" (Reiterman, 216). Demography, the science of human population (or more specifically, the study of population structure and processes), draws together research from a number of disciplines, including economics, sociology, geography, public health, and genetics. [29] This argument was written out in Humanae Vitae, a papal encyclical released in 1968. Adolescent pregnancy, especially in developing countries, carries increased health risks, and contributes to maintaining the cycle of poverty. Ap Human Geography Ch. In addition to the environmental impacts of [53] The other event that changed public opinion was the outbreak of rubella in the 1950s and 60s. Using geographic ideas, information, and theories to study disease, health, and health care. AP HuG Chapter 10 Development. uneven. 35 on gender-based violence against women, updating general recommendation No. Articles from the World Health Organization call legal abortion a fundamental right of women regardless of where they live, and argue that unsafe abortion is a silent pandemic. The most frequently provided method was injectable progesterone, which the article acknowledged was not ideal and emphasised condom use with this method because it can increase the risk of HIV: The product made up 49% of South Africa's contraceptive use and up to 90% in some provinces. Навигация по записям ← Предыдущие fundamentalism definition ap human geography. The de facto inability of women to access abortion even in countries where it is legal is highly controversial because it results in a situation where women have rights only on paper not in practice; the UN in its 2017 resolution on Intensification of efforts to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls: domestic violence urged states to guarantee access to "safe abortion where such services are permitted by national law". Some women are subjected to forced pregnancy and banned from leaving the home. 35 on gender based violence against women, updating general recommendation No. [19] This is the result of a lack of political and financial commitment to the issue as most [26] Another type of contraception is the birth control pill, which stops ovulation from occurring by combining the chemicals progestin and estrogen. Reproductive health- adolescent fertility rate, maternal mortality rate. Inequalities vary based on socioeconomic status, education level, age, ethnicity, religion, and resources available in their environment. Higher GII = higher inequality. the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population. [8] In addition, States parties may not regulate pregnancy or abortion in all other cases in a manner that runs contrary to their duty to ensure that women and girls do not have to undertake unsafe abortions, and they should revise their abortion laws accordingly. standards. The age that women undergo the procedure varies depending on the culture, although it is most commonly performed on prepubescent girls. In LDCs, women are more likely to die during labor and have children during … A provider referenced and example of propaganda spread about the side effects of contraception: "There are influential people, for example elders and religious leaders. AP Human Geography. [76], HIV/AIDS in Africa is a major public health problem. migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there, migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city. Reproductive health is defined as” A state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters related to the reproductive system and to its functions and process”. The nonbinding resolution was passed on April 16 by a vote of 102 to 69. [54] Pro-choice advocates also attempt to confirm that state-mandated education or other outside biases don't attempt to influence these decisions. They also aim to increase access to long acting contraceptive methods, particularly the copper IUD, and the introductions of single rod progestogen implant and combined oestrogen and progestogen injectables. [44], The Maputo Protocol, which was adopted by the African Union in the form of a protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, states at Article 14 (Health and Reproductive Rights) that: "(2). A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. mutually beneficial for the international community. [28], There are many objections to the use of birth control, both historically and in the present day. According to the World Health Organization:[66], "The sexual and reproductive health of the female in a child marriage is likely to be jeopardized, as these young girls are often forced into sexual intercourse with an older male spouse with more sexual experience. two forms of combined oral contraceptives are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. - Aquaculture (Blue Revolution): increasing demand for food and fish, rapid depletion (supply < demand). The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was held in Cairo, Egypt, from 5 to 13 September 1994. “Pro-choice” emphasizes the right of women to decide whether to terminate a pregnancy. Constraints in supply chains sometimes cause dispensaries to run out of contraceptive materials. Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries. [9] For most adolescent females, they have yet to complete their body growth trajectories, therefore adding a pregnancy exposes them to a predisposition to complications. Answer: 1 question Fertilization begins when a woman’s reproductive cell the and a males reproductive cell, a combine 23 chromosomes each thus forming a zygote ( use the preferred term for each cell) - the answers to estudyassistant.com This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families. [72] The ICPD achieved consensus on four qualitative and quantitative goals for the international community, the final two of which have particular relevance for reproductive health: The keys to this new approach are empowering women, providing them with more choices through expanded access to education and health services, and promoting skill development and employment. emphasized as to what will remedy the poor quality of maternal health globally. exemplify this as these regions are significantly deprived of medical staff and affordable health [19] Poorer nations or regions with In 2005, it was estimated that 19-20 million abortions had complications, some complications are permanent, while another estimated 68,000 women died from unsafe abortions. [27] One reason for this is because of the side effects that may occur from using the pill, and because some health care providers do not take women's concerns about negative side effects seriously. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. There are also natural family planning methods, which may be preferred by religious people, but some very conservative religious groups, such as the Quiverfull movement, oppose these methods too, because they advocate the maximization of procreation. Term. [39] The vast majority of such unsafe abortions occur in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.[39]. [43] In some countries where it abortion is legal, and has been for decades, there has been no improvement in access to adequate services making abortion unsafe due to lack of healthcare services. Continued population increase despite reduced reproductive rates. [81], "Sexual health" redirects here. [54] Feminists argue that women throughout history have had to justify their citizenship politically and socially. There are a number of prominent indices tha… [53][54] Because rubella disrupted the growth of fetuses and caused deformities during pregnancy, the California Therapeutic Abortion Act was signed in 1967. Gender inequalityrefers to the unequal treatment of individuals due to their gender. Investing in maternal health would In 2015, those in low-income countries had access to antenatal care visits averaged to 40% and were preventable. [27] The use of the birth control pill is common in western countries, and Barrier methods, such as condoms, the diaphragm, and the cervical cap, are designed to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg for fertilization. COURSE AND EXAM DESCRIPTION. Consists of: … Опубликовано 30 ноября, 2020 автором 30 ноября, 2020 автором Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst affected world region for prevalence of HIV, especially among young women. Access was also hindered as a result of a lack in properly trained medical personnel: "Shortage of the medical attendant...is a challenge, we are not able to attend to a big number of clients, also we do not have enough education which makes us unable to provide women with the methods they want". [30] Another argument states that women should use natural methods of contraception in place of artificial ones, such as having sexual intercourse when one is infertile. [45] The Maputo Protocol is the first international treaty to recognize abortion, under certain conditions, as a woman's human right.[46]. ... as well as issues of human health, well-being, and social and economic equity. 99% of maternal deaths occur in developing countries, and in 25 years, the maternal mortality globally dropped to 44%. [34], There are more than 600 million cases of STI's worldwide and more than 20 million new cases within the United States. The copper IUD has been provided significantly less frequently than other contraceptive methods but signs of an increase in most provinces were reported. One of the international Sustainable Development Goals developed by United Nations is to improve maternal health by a targeted 70 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2030. [12], The causes for teenage pregnancy are vast and diverse. 9546, 28 Sept. 2006, pp. safe motherhood programs internationally have to compete for significant funding. [26] Both types stop sperm from entering the woman's uterus, thereby preventing pregnancy from occurring. Another said that women often had pressure from their spouse or family that caused them to use birth control secretly or to discontinue use, and that women frequently preferred undetectable methods for this reason. [21] As it currently stands, pregnant women are subjugated to high financial costs the number of people under the age of 15 and above the age of 65, comared to the number of people active in the labor force. Sexual problems are 1.5 more likely to occur in women who have undergone FGM, they may experience painful intercourse, have less sexual satisfaction, and be two times more likely to report lack of sexual desire. [53] These two events are commonly used to show how the health and safety of pregnant women are contingent upon abortions as well as the ability to give birth to and adequately take care of a child. Availability of contraceptives for couples with knowledge and desire to use it e.g. [41] Each movement has, with varying results, sought to influence public opinion and to attain legal support for its position, with small numbers of anti-abortion advocates using violence, such as murder and arson. [35], There is a profound reduction on STI rates once those who are sexually active are educated about transmissions, condom promotion, interventions targeted at key and vulnerable populations through a comprehensive Sex education courses or programs. Definition; Human Geography: One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes. Niger, Angola, Mali, Burundi, Somalia and Uganda have very high fertility rates. “Maternal Health in Poor Countries: the Broader Context and a Call for Action.” The Lancet, vol. •Takes resources from health and safety programs. [55][56] There are two events that largely changed the course of public opinion about abortion in the U.S.[53][54] The first is Sherry Finkbine, who was denied access to an abortion by the board of obstetrician-gynecologists at her local hospital. Thus, restrictions on the ability of women or girls to seek abortion must not, inter alia, jeopardize their lives, subject them to physical or mental pain or suffering which violates article 7, discriminate against them or arbitrarily interfere with their privacy. ... Demographers began to include men in reproductive research after this conference Moved away from reproductive targets and towards reproductive rights/ health -freedoms to choose/ absence of violence The adolescent fertility rate is a measurement of the number of births per 1,000 women between the ages of 15 through 19. Undergraduate 1. In terms of reproductive health, maternal mortality ratio and adolescent fertility rates are determined. [19] Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia [37], Tanzanian provider perspectives address the obstacles to consistent contraceptive use in their communities. Bintou_Bane. [54] The citizenship of women and the right to manage their own bodies is a societal confirmation that feminists highlight as a pro-choice justification. In general, countries with a high HDIs have ___ GIIs. Pessimistic; originally used to mean population limitation by birth control and/or abortion. 90% of the children in the world living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa. [50], In 2008, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, a group comprising members from 47 European countries, has adopted a resolution calling for the decriminalization of abortion within reasonable gestational limits and guaranteed access to safe abortion procedures. A population policy is a policy that a country engages in in order to get its population to a level that it feels is optimal for it. Therefore, increasing women's autonomy is needed in order to improve reproductive health, however doing may require a cultural shift. 36 (2018) on article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, on the right to life", "General recommendation No. For most of human history, the population of Earth has climbed steadily and slowly, but in the eighteenth century (with the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution in Britain) the population began to grow dramatically. Gender inequality is a major concern in the field of international development because it hinders economic growth and impedes human development. One argument against birth control usage states that there is no need for birth control to begin with. low. "[50] The same General Recommendation also urges countries at paragraph 31 to [...] In particular, repeal: [19] In addition, Specific goals are to reduce global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births, end preventable deaths of newborns and children, reduce the number by 50% of accidental deaths globally, strengthen the treatment and prevention programs of substance abuse and alcohol. Zero population growth definition, the maintenance of a population at a constant level by limiting the number of live births to that needed to replace the existing population. This marks the body's chemical response to trauma and stress, and can indicate a greater risk for developing symptoms of PTSD and other trauma disorders, although there are limited studies showing a direct correlation. [contra- + (con)ception.] Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Central Asia, and SW asia. Terms in this set (37) Medical Geography. There are many types of contraceptives. Providers also claimed that more male involvement and education would be helpful. LGBT teens may suffer additional problems if they live in places where homosexual activity is socially disapproved and/or illegal; in extreme cases there can be depression, social isolation and even suicide among LGBT youth. The argument for abortion prevents others from making decisions that alter a woman's body. Reproductive health was Goal 5 out of 8. [20] [61] FGM may or may not have religious connotations depending on the circumstances. Physical Geography [54], The second primary argument to uphold legalized abortion and creating better access to it is the necessity of abortion and the health and safety of pregnant women. [74] The MDGs expired in 2015 and were replaced with a more comprehensive set of goals to cover a span of 2016–2030 with a total of 17 goals, called the Sustainable Development Goals. However, it does not protect from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). [20] The impact Term. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (98) ... introduced in 2010, which measures a country's loss of achievement due to gender inequality, based on reproductive health, employment, and general empowerment. [52], There are two primary arguments for maintaining legalized abortion today in the U.S. The fact that the law allows certain reproductive health services, it does not necessary ensure that such services are actually in use by the people. [20] Most countries provide for their health services through a combination of The General comment No. 13 .4. [9] For example, they should not take measures such as criminalizing pregnancies by unmarried women or apply criminal sanctions against women and girls undergoing abortion [10] or against medical service providers assisting them in doing so, since taking such measures compel women and girls to resort to unsafe abortion. 2 on Article 14.1 (a), (b), (c) and (f) and Article 14. More severe forms of FGM are highly concentrated in Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. Microloan. funding from government tax revenue and local households. [10] In 2016, adolescent birth rates between the ages of 15-19 was 45 per 1000. [53] Unintended pregnancies also have a greater potential for putting women of color at risk due to systematically produced environmental hazards from proximity to pollution, access to livable income, and affordable healthy food. How disease diffuses is critical to global health issues. One center had only one person who was able to insert and remove implants, and without her they were unable to service people who wanted an implant inserted or removed. As such, the Catholic Church encourages premarital abstinence from sex. Study 364 AP Human Geo Unit 1 flashcards from Catherine D. on StudyBlue. kottkeeg. In many countries, women are not allowed to leave home without a male relative or husband, and therefore their ability to access medical services is limited. 19 states that: "Violations of women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights, such as forced sterilizations, forced abortion, forced pregnancy, criminalisation of abortion, denial or delay of safe abortion and post abortion care, forced continuation of pregnancy, abuse and mistreatment of women and girls seeking sexual and reproductive health information, goods and services, are forms of gender based violence that, depending on the circumstances, may amount to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. [29] Demographic planning arguments were also the basis of the population policy of Nicolae Ceaușescu in communist Romania, who adopted a very aggressive natalist policy which included outlawing abortion and contraception, routine pregnancy tests for women, taxes on childlessness, and legal discrimination against childless people. [26] Many women use this method of contraception, however they discontinue using it equally as much as they use it. In the ICPD Program of Action,[68] 'reproductive health' is defined as: a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and...not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. 20 terms. Permanent movement within a particular country. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. [42] Having access to safe abortion can have positive impacts on women's health and life, and vice versa. It is possible for example, that low income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive health. States parties must provide safe, legal and effective access to abortion where the life and health of the pregnant woman or girl is at risk, and where carrying a pregnancy to term would cause the pregnant woman or girl substantial pain or suffering, most notably where the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest or is not viable. It measures the human development costs of gender inequality. For students in Mr. Sluders AP Human Geography class. Please complete this vocabulary chart by defining the term in your own words, summarizing the term in your own Eric Welter's AP Human Geography Class 2014-2015. Human Geography Human geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. However, the lack of proper leadership can result in a nation's public sectors being The policy also promotes screening activities related to sexual health such as HIV counseling and testing as well as testing for other STIs, tuberculosis, cervical cancer, and breast cancer. [31], A Sexually transmitted infection (STI) --previously known as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease (VD)-- is an infection that has a significant likelihood of transmission between humans by means of sexual activity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Fourth World Conference on Women, sexual and reproductive health and rights, World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Conference on Population and Development, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Pacific Society for Reproductive Health Trust, "Determinants of and disparities in reproductive health service use among adolescent and young adult women in the United States, 2002-2008", What You Should Know About Having a Baby at 40, Live births by age of mother and sex of child, general and age-specific fertility rates: latest available year, 2000–2009, "Adolescent sexual and reproductive health: The global challenges", "Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health", "Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)", "Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health (2016-2030) Key Statistics", "Preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries", Country Comparison: Maternal Mortality Rate, "Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group", Choosing not to choose: reproductive responses of parents of children with genetic conditions or impairments, Genetic disorders and choices about reproduction, "What are the different types of contraception? 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